The U.S. and Iran have reached a temporary deal where Iran will accept temporary restrictions on their nuclear program in exchange for sanction relief and the international community recognizing their right to enrich uranium. This last point is at the crux of the debate. The enrichment of fissile materials is essential to producing a nuclear bomb. Iran maintains that it has an absolute right to enrich uranium, while the international community sees this as a smoke screen for developing the bomb.
The new agreement will last for 6 months. Iran which has been enriching uranium up to 20%, will agree to cap enrichment at 5%. It is technically possible for the uranium to be quickly re-enriched back to higher levels. Iran also maintains its centrifuges and ability to produce heavy water, another component necessary to bomb development. Additionally, if a final deal cannot be reached in this time, the entire deal falls through.
The Wall Street Journal, Reid Backs Bill Broadening Iran Sanctions if Nuclear Negotiations Fail: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304337404579211892086381458?mod=WSJWorld__LEFTTopStories
The Wall Street Journal, Iran Nuclear Enrichment Demand Key Accord Obstacle—Diplomats: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304337404579211952368500122?mod=WSJWorld__LEFTTopStories
The Wall Street Journal, French Foreign Minister Says Powers Are United on Iran: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304791704579211231488740974?mod=WSJWorld__LEFTTopStories
Reuters, France, Iran Trade Barbs as Powers Struggle to Reach Nuclear Deal: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/21/us-iran-nuclear-idUSBRE9AI0CV20131121
The Wall Street Journal, The Gipper’s Guide to Negotiating: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303531204579204204025788642?mod=WSJ_Opinion_LEADTop
The New York Times, Speech by Iran’s Supreme Leader Raises Ire as Talks Resume: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/world/middleeast/iran-nuclear-talks.html?_r=0
B.B.C., Iran and P5+1 Struggle on Nuclear Deal in Geneva: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-25041814